Tax reform measures are enacted frequently by Congress, which makes it hard for U.S. taxpayers to know which tax deductions are currently available to help lower their tax liability.
Taxpayers may be able to take deductions for student-loan interest, out-of-pocket charitable contributions, health savings account, home mortgage interest, contributions to a traditional IRA, and deductions for self-employed taxpayers (SE tax, SE health insurance, SE qualified retirement plan contributions). Of course, some tax deductions are limited or disappear as adjusted gross income increases.
Another key deduction is unreimbursed medical and dental expenses. The adjusted gross income (AGI) threshold for deducting unreimbursed medical expenses was retroactively reduced from 10% to 7.5% for tax years 2017 and 2018 only. In 2019, you may only deduct medical and dental expenses to the extent that they exceed 10% of your AGI and were not reimbursed by your insurance company or employer.